Laurel Hill Florida, Okaloosa County - est. 1905


Excerpts from the
November 1982 booklet: 

Daniel Campbell &
Effie McLean
Descendants and
Other Connections

by Mayme Tyner and
Mayme Pearl Tyner

Booklet Index

 Campbell Family History
 Will Barnhill, Baker Florida
 Daniel Campbell of Skye Scotland
 History of Laurel Hill, Florida
 Josephine Baggett & John Campbell 
 Country Living in the early 1900s
 James Campbell 

Campbell Family Name and Arms

People took as surnames the names of flowers (Lilly, Rose), animals (Fox, Bears), place names (Hill, Wood), occupational names (Taylor, Smith), and Christian names (Gilbert, Richards). Still another source was nicknames, of which Campbell is one example. It denoted a man who had a crooked or distorted mouth, from the Gaelic words came, "crooked," and beul, 'mouth.'

Nicknames functioned differently from other types of names. While other surnames identified an individual by information such as his occupation, his location, or his family, a nickname sought to relate something about the person's appearance or his essential character. Probably the most natural way to name a person was by a one-word discriptionn of his appearance, particularly if the person had some unusual or outstanding physical feature.

"Cameron," another well-known Scottish name, comes from the words meaning "crooked nose," while the Irish name Kennedy refers to an ugly or misshapen head. Other names which were derived from a person's physical features include Reed, "The red- haired or ruddy person" and White, "The light or fair-complexioned person or one with white hair."

It is possible, though, that the "crooked mouth" of the Campbells' ancestor referred to a moral trait, i.e., lying, rather than a physical one. Often people were labeled with a derogatory name, either in jest or in earnest. The name Coot brings to mind the bird of the same name, which is known for its stupidity. "Pettiford" denoted an iron-footed, or slow person. "Royster" was applied to a blustering bully, and "Prout" was a proud and arrogant man.

Because of the evolutionary nature of name development, it is virtually impossible to pinpoint the exact date of the formation of any new name. Campbell, of course, is no exception. The first to assume the surname Campbell is said to have been Duncan MacDwine Campbell around the eleventh century. He was a descendant of Constantine,
who emigrated from France in 404 A.D.

The Scottish name Campbell is found predominantly in the central part of the country and is most abundant in the shires of Fife, Forfar, Perth, Stirling, Dumbarton, and Argyll. By the time of the first census in America in 1790, many Campbell families had settled in this country. The average Campbell household had 5.5 members and census records indicate that there were more Campbell heads-of-households living in Kentucky, North Carolina, and New York than in any other part of America. Official United States records compiled in 1974 indicate that in that year Campbell was the 41st most frequently occurring surname in the nation. Today there are approximately 362,000 adult Americans named Campbell.

A History of Coat Armor

Though authorities may differ as to details, it is generally believed that the use of coat armor began during the twelfth century. Historical research indicates that the use of coat armor developed simultaneously throughout much of Europe and in Great Britain. In an age of poor communication, this is an anomaly which may be explained by the occurrence of the First Crusade in A.D. 1097 - an historical event of great significance in that it brought together for the first time in medieval history a large and diverse number of young, influential military and political leaders from all of Europe.

Amid the fanaticism which swept the Continent, this army marched off to Asia Minor to confront the Turkish Saracens and return the Holy Land to Christendom. However, these European knights were greatly surprised and distressed to discover that their enemy employed military strategies and techniques far superior to anything previously seen in Europe. Using large armies and freewheeling field tactics, the Turks routed the best of European knighthood.

On their return to Europe, the Crusaders apparently recalled the technical superiority of the Turks and determined that one of the key elements in that superiority was the use of various insignia painted on the shields of the Asian warriors. Such insignia, in fact, were designed specifically to identify the Turkish allies and maintain order in the ranks amid the swirling chaos of large-scale battles.

Within three generations, the knights of medieval Europe were also displaying the first rudimentary forms of coat armor. Rendered on shields, surcoats, horse trappings, and other paraphernalia, these armorial insignia during the medieval period served the need of identifications in battle and in tournament.

Today, coat armor is most closely associated in the popular mind with the medieval tournament, or joust. Much like the Western gunfighter, young knights in brilliant arrays of color and insignia took part in the formalized combat of the joust in hopes of being noticed and retained by the wealthy nobles. Their success - and even their livelihood - depended in large part on their being recognized by the aristocracy. Heraldry, or the science of arranging and describing coat armor, grew out of this need for recognition.

With the passage of time and the withering of feudalism, the use of coat armor passed into the general populace. With the refinements of the sixteenth century and the subsequent standardization of terminology and principles, heraldry acquired importance as both a legal entity and a genealogical research tool. Today in most of Europe, it has the status accorded a trademark and is highly prized by those families who are entitled to its use.

Heraldry, or the study of armorial bearings, is an adjunct to the study of family history. Coat armor, it is important to note, was completely unknown in Europe before the twelfth century, and did not appear in England until about 1250. Its sudden rise has been ascribed to several varied events, including the First Crusade (1097), the advent of body armor, and the growing use of seals on personal documents.

In any case, the early development of the use of heraldic devices followed closely upon the need for better identification, and the trend became widespread. First embellished on shields and other pieces of armor, the imaginative, elaborate heraldic designs soon were transferred to surcoats, horse trappings, and even private possessions. These early insignia, including bends (diagonal stripes), fesses (horizontal stripes), chevrons, and crosses, were chosen because they were conspicuous, even in the chaos of bloody battle. For the same reason bright colors were used.

Charges, or representations of animals and natural objects, did not become popular until the second half of the twelfth century, when, as stated above, the use of surnames was revived.

With the advent of gunpowder in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and the concomitant decline of armor as an essential in warfare, the need for armorial bearings also waned. By then, though, coats of arms were cherished for their decorative effect, and family crests were handed down from proud sire to aspiring son. The ancient art was debased by the frenzied efforts of many people to coin their own armorial bearings and adorn them with embellishments and devices of doubtful historical significance.

Central authorities were established to inquire into the validity of the new creations. Their work was generally ineffectual in maintaining the simplicity and purity of the earlier designs, but their thorough records have subsequently proved very useful to the genealogical researcher. These records, showing hereditary usage of certain symbols and devices, represent in many cases the only means for unraveling the complex familial relationships of medieval Europe.

In the United States, where the democratic tradition has mitigated interest in holding and preserving official armorial bearings, there is nonetheless a great informal interest in the science of heraldry. The question of rightful ownership of coat armor does not pertain in this country, for the very nature of the settlement and development of America makes it unlikely that any more than a few families have legitimate claim to specific insignia. Heraldry is instead highly regarded for its aesthetic and historical qualities - for the symbols, devices, and colors generally associated with any particular surname tell a story of our ancestors. Burke's General Armory lists seventy-six coats of arms for the Campbell family. Most of these are similar to the two described below.

ARMS: Quarterly, first and fourth, gyrenny of eight, or and sable; second and third, argent, a lymphad, sail furled, flags flying, all sable. CREST: a boar's head couped or. MOTTOES: Ne obliviscaris. Vix ea nostro voce. (Arms: A shield, - the first and fourth quarters gold and black triangles, the second and third bearing a black ship on a silver field. Crest: A golden boar's head cut at the shoulders. Mottoes: Lest you forget. I scarce call these deeds of our ancestors ours.)

ARMS: Gyrony of eight or, and sable. CREST: A boar's head couped or. (Arms: Eight triangular pieces, alternately gold and black. Crest: A golden boar's head cut at the shoulders.)

History of Scotland:
It's Highlands, Clans and Regiments 
Vol III, James Browns, 1909, pp 326-328

Clan Campbell and Others

"Mr. Pinkerton, misled by a very fanciful etymology, has assigned to the Campbells a Norman origin, and in this notion he has been followed by all those persons who find it more easy to adopt an authority than to investigate a fact, or discuss an opinion. Having assumed that the name Campbell is merely an abbreviated form of Campo-bello, he concluded, first, that the latter was a Norman appellation; and, secondly, that the Campbells were not Celts but Goths, who had originally sprung from a Norman family, known by the designation of Campo-bello. But in answer to this etymological conceit, it may be sufficient to observe, that, as far as an inference can be deduced from a name, that of Campbell, if it had originally been Campo-bello, would have indicated an Italian rather than a Norman origin; and, besides, that no trace has ever been discovered of the existence of a Norman family distinguished by the name of Campo-bello. Doomsday book and other similar records make no mention of any such family. The farther back we trace the denomination of this clan, the more unlikely does it become to the Italianized name of Campo-bello; and the oldest mode of writing it is in the Ragman Roll, where it appears as Cambel or Kambell, a word clearly of Celtic derivation.

"The Campbells first made their appearance in the reign of Alexander Ill, when they were divided into two great families, which were afterward distinguished by the patronymics of MacArthur and MacCaillanmore. In 1266, Gillespie Cambel, head of the MacCaillanmore branch, witnessed the charter of erection of the burgh of Newburgh by Alexander Ill; and there is some reason to believe that he was heritable sheriff of Argyle, which had, in 1221, been erected into a sheriffdom by Alexander II. But it was not until the reign of Robert Bruce that the Campbells obtained a firm footing in Argyle, and laid the foundation of their future greatness and power. To the gratitude of that great sovereign, whom he had faithfully served, Sir Niell Campbell of Lochawe was indebted for many grants that were made to him out of the lands forfeited by the house of Lorn, the Comyns, and other supporters of the party of John Baliol. The marriage of this baron with the sister of King Robert attached the Campbells still more closely to the dynasty of Bruce; and, during the minority of David II they adhered to his interests with unwavering fidelity. Early in the fifteenth century, Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochawe, afterward the first Lord Campbell, was considered as one of the most wealthy barons in Scotland. Colin Campbell, grandson of Sir Duncan, and the first Earl of Argyll, acquired by marriage the extensive lordship of Lorn, and, for a long period, held the office of chancellor of Scotland. In 1475, this nobleman was appointed to prosecute a decree of forfeiture against John, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, and, in 1481, he received a considerable grant of lands in Knapdale, alongst with the Keepership of the castle of Sweyn, which was formerly held by the Lord of the Isles. Colin, the first Earl, died in the year 1491, and was succeeded by his son Archibald, the second earl, of whom, however, little or nothing is known.

"The Campbells were ambitious and aspiring, continued to make rapid advances in power and influence during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Marquis of Argyll, commonly called Gillespe Crumach, did more to aggrandize his family than almost any of his predecessors. He succeeded in establishing claims to a great part of the estate of Dowart, and he obliged all the other branches of the MacLeans, as well as the clan Chameron, the Clan Ranald of Carmoran, the Clan Neill of Cigha, and many other tribes, to become his vassals, notwithstanding that they had previously held their lands of the Crown. His son, the ninth Earl of Argyll, consolidated the power which he had thus acquired; and, as the forfeitures of this earl and his father were rescended at the Revolution, the family of Argyll found itself possessed of greater influence than any other In Scotland; and, as formerly, this influence was supported by the willing service and cooperation of a great many powerful families of the same name.

"The MacArthur branch appears to have been originally at the head of the Clan Campbell, and to have held this position until the reign of James I, when it was displaced by the MacCaillanmore branch, which has ever since maintained an undisputed supremacy. The force of the clan, at different times, has varied considerably. In 1427, it was only 1,000; but in 1715, it had increased to four thousand, and in 1745, it amounted to five thousand. At Culloden, the Campbells were opposed by their countrymen, and did very serious injury to the Highland Army by breaking down a wall, and opening a flanking fire at the critical moment of the battle. It is but just to add, that this powerful clan has generally contrived to be on the strongest side."

Colonists From Scotland: Emigration
to North America 1707- 1783
By: Ian Charles Cargill Graham, 1956

The Campbells From the Isle of Skye

As a basis for compiling the genealogy of Daniel Campbell, his wife, Effie McLean and their descendants, it is necessary to have some background knowledge of the situations under which they emigrated from the Isle of Skye to America. The Scottish people are divided into two classes: Highlanders and Lows. The classification is based on the geographical locations of the people and their respective homes and livelihoods. The geographical boundary between Highlands and Lowlands has generally been held to lie along the line where the lowlands meet the highlands, which is in most places well defined by the contour of the land itself. It runs across the north side of the Clyde Valley, then North and east through Perthshire and Angus and around the east side of Scotland close to the coast where it turns to the northwest to the end of the northern shore near Pentland Pirth, leaving Cathness as a remote post of the Lowlands. The Western Isles, or Hebrides, have always belonged to the Highlands in every respect, while the Northern Isles possessed some of the characteristics of both Highlands and Lowlands.

The military and feudal life of the clans prevailed in the entire Highland area, and the clansmen continued to make raids into the neighboring Lowlands to carry off cattle. A man's first loyalty was to his chief who could indulge in private warfare and administer justice on the lands of his clan. The law of Scotland possessed little force beyond the Highland Line. The Reformation had never penetrated many of the Highland glens and Western Isles. The people of each area were ignorant of the other, holding them in contempt in proportion to their ignorance.

The disruption and dissolution of the old Highland way of life took place in the generation after the defeat of the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. In this period the British government made a determined effort to assimilate the Highlands to the rising commercial and industrial civilization of the Lowlands. School teachers, Presbyterian missionaries and Lowland craftsmen were sent to the remotest glens of the north to save, train and educate the ignorant masses of the Highlands. The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 served to point up the differences between the Highlanders and Lowlanders. The Highlanders were unwilling to be taught by Lowlanders for they considered them a mean and degenerate race.

The majority of the Highlanders were farmers of sorts, cultivating what was called "run-rig" (Lands divided into strips) plots and grazed their cattle in the large common pasture and soon found that they could not make an adequate income on a small enclosed plot where only limited grazing was possible. This situation led to more poverty and overpopulation resulting from crop failure from early frost, loss of cattle in the spring and an increase of rents for their cattle because of the greater poundage production from sheep that were able to graze shorter grass than cattle in a ratio of about 3 to 1. This over population led to auctions for higher rents which made life more precarious for the Highland farmer. As early as 1750 poverty caused such a "depression of spirit" among the inhabitants of the Isle of Skye that groups of them were sailing for America. Apparently this was the case with Daniel and Effie McLean Campbell when they came to America in 1752.

It is clear that the great governing cause of emigration from the Highlands in the middle fifty years of the eighteenth century was poverty - the kind of poverty that arises from a growing population pressing upon limited agricultural and commercial resources. The poverty of the masses, especially in the Highlands, can hardly be overstressed. Following the Jacobite Rebellion, there arose two other reasons for emigration involving compulsion - transportation for treason or crimes and the drafting of troops to the colonies. In Scotland, during most of the 17th and 18th centuries, treason and crime were frequently punished by exile to the English colonies. Many judges and other people in authority believed that turning capital punishment into exile was an act of clemency and not cruelty. It is an exaggeration to describe the Jacobite exiles as a wave of emigration. The bulk of the Jacobite settlers were Highlanders. They did no more than to lay a narrow foundation for the migrations of the future. From the beginning, the Highland emigrants' letters home were a very powerful influence in attracting others to America. Many emigrants were eager to serve in the military since the veteran felt confident of a material future in the colonies better than anything he could ever find in the overpopulated glens of the Highlands. Overpopulation had driven him into the army in the first place. In the emigration, the people of Argyll, Ross, Sutherland, and the Isle of Skye preferred settling in the Carolinas. Thus the clannish instinct helped to increase the emigration once the initial Highland settlements had been made. The more Highlanders in America, the more those left at home desired to join them. Instead of a sorrowful farewell when family members and friends sailed from the Isle of Skye, those left behind seemed to think that they would soon follow. Many people were unable to pay for their transportation and to reimburse for their travel, many people indentured themselves as servants for a period of corresponding time to repay the expenses that they had been advanced for their oceanic passage.

Nothing is known, at this time, where the Campbells sailed from, or landed. However, it has been rumored that he was one of five brothers who emigrated to America at the same time. Nothing is known of the places where they lived prior to their settling in the northwestern portion of what was known as Walton County, Florida, where they died and were buried in what was known at one time as "Cedar Cove" Cemetery, later as the Clary Cemetery and currently as Magnolia Cemetery. Their grave sites are lost but their descendants are scattered over much of Northwest Florida and South Alabama.

This work does not purport to be perfect but is rather an effort to record a few facts for posterity and serve as a source material sometime in the future for whomever might be interested. Efforts have bean made to obtain resumes of the different families without adequate and sufficient success. Perhaps someone in the future might under-take a more objective reconstruction and revision of these efforts.

The following news story is copied from the Pensacola Gazette of December 10, 1842.

"There now resides in Walton County about 75 miles from this (Pensacola) place a man and his wife whose united age is 229 years. The old gentleman's name is Daniel Campbell. He was united to his present wife 94 years ago in the Isle of Skye, Scotland. He emigrated to this country several years before the Revolution and was about 50 years old when the War began. There were no neutrals then and as Mr. Campbell left his native country in consequence of the political trouble of 1745, he was prepared to take part with the colonists against the House of Hanover. He served through nearly all the entire Revolutionary War. But although very poor, he was not able to avail himself of the Bounty or rather of the just remuneration which the pension laws have provided for the survivors of that glorious epoch because before the passage of the Act of 1832, he was by extreme old age and mental infirmity rendered incapable of making the declaration required by the law. He is now 117 years of age, his wife is 112 years old."

This author found records indicating that one Daniel Campbell did file an application for Revolutionary War Pension which was denied because of too short a period of service.

Daniel Campbell was born on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, in the year 1725 and in the year 1749 he married Miss Effie McLean. They moved to America in the year 1752 together with his family. He died on his birthday, December 12, 1843. His wife died the day before he passed away and both were buried at the same hour in the Sam Clary Cemetery near Magnolia settlement in Walton County, Florida. They lived togethera total of 94 years. She bore him 6 children. One son, Peter, married Christian McCaskill, daughter of Allen McCaskill and to them were born 7 children, Margaret, (Katie) Catherine, Alexander, Janie, Daniel, Sallie and Allen.



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